Makalah “OTONOMI DAERAH”

Makalah Politik
OTONOMI DAERAH

BAB I
PENDAHULUAN

A. Latar Belakang
Sebuah negara kesatuan, menurut sistemnya dibedakan menjadi dua, yaitu sistem sentralisasi dan sistem desentralisasi. Sebuah negara yang menganut sistem sentralisasi berarti pemerintah pusat dalam negara tersebut memiliki kedaulatan penuh untuk menyelenggarakan urusan pemerintah dari pusat hingga daerah, termasuk segala hal yang menyangkut urusan pemerintahan daerah. Sehingga, dapat dikatakan bahwa pemerintah daerah bersifat pasif dan hanya mematuhi perintah dari pemerintah pusat.
Sedangkan sistem desentralisasi adalah sebuah sistem dimana pemerintah sebagai pemegang kekuasaan tertinggi dalam negara memberikan sebagian kekuasaanya kepada daerah untuk mengatur dan mengurus rumah tangganya sendiri.
Negara Indonesia merupakan negara kesatuan yang menganut sistem desentralisasi. Oleh karena itu, meskipun pemerintah pusat adalah pemegang kekuasaan tertinggi di Indonesia, setiap daerah di Indonesia memiliki hak untuk mengatur dan mengurus rumah tangganya sendiri, dengan catatan apa yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah daerah tidak menentang pemerintah pusat.
B. Rumusan Masalah
1. Apa yang dimaksud dengan otonomi daerah ?
2. Apakah landasan hukum otonomi daerah ?
3. Apa sajakah prinsip-prinsip otonomi daerah ?
4. Bagimana pelaksanaan otonomi daerah di Indonesia ?
C. Tujuan
1. Memenuhi penugasan mata kuliah Pancasila.
2. Memahami lebih jauh tentang pengertian, landasan, dan prinsip-prinsip otonomi daerah.
3. Mengetahui pelaksanaan otonomi daerah di Indonesia.

BAB II
PEMBAHASAN

A. Pengertian Otonomi Daerah
Otonomi atau autonomy berasal dari bahasa Yunani, autos yang berarti sendiri dan nomous yang berarti hukum atau peraturan. Otonomi pada dasarnya memuat makna kebebasan dan kemandirian.
Menurut Fernandez, otonomi daerah adalah pemberian hak, wewenang, dan kewajiban kepada daerah yang memungkinkan daerah tersebut dapat mengatur dan mengurus rumah tangganya sendiri untuk meningkatkan daya guna dan hasil guna penyelenggaraan pemerintahan dalam rangka pelayanan terhadap masyarakat dan pelaksanaan pembangunan
Menurut Widarta, otonomi daerah berarti kebebasan dan kemandirian daerah dalam menentukan langkah-langkah sendiri.
Dari kedua pernyataan tersebut dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa otonomi daerah adalah hak, wewenang dan kewajiban daerah otonom untuk mengatur dan mengurus sendiri urusan pemerintahan dan kepentingan masyarakat setempat sesuai dengan peraturan perundang-undangan.
B. Landasan Hukum Otonomi Daerah
UUD 1945 pasal 18 ayat 2 berbumyi “Pemerintah daerah provinsi, daerah Kabupaten, dan Kota mengatur dan mengurus sendiri urusan pemerintahan menurut asas otonomi dan tugas pembantuan.” Pasal tersebut adalah landasan mutlak untuk pelaksanaan otonomi daerah di Indonesia.
Selain pasal tersebut, otonomi daerah juga diatur dalam :
1. UU No. 1 tahun 1945. Kebijakan Otonomi daerah pada masa ini lebih menitikberatkan pada dekonsentrasi. Kepala daerah merupakan kepanjangan tangan Pemerintahan Pusat.
2. UU No. 22 tahun 1948. Mulai tahun ini Kebijakan otonomi daerah lebih menitikberatkan pada desentralisasi. Tetapi masih ada dualisme peran di kepala daerah, di satu sisi ia punya peran besar untuk daerah, tapi juga masih menjadi alat Pemerintah pusat.
3. UU No. 1 tahun 1957. Kebijakan otonomi daerah pada masa ini masih bersifat dualisme, di mana kepala daerah bertanggung jawab penuh pada DPRD, tetapi juga masih alat Pemerintah pusat.
4. Penetapan Presiden No.6 tahun 1959. Pada masa ini kebijakan otonomi daerah lebih menekankan dekonsentrasi. Melalui penpres ini kepala daerah diangkat oleh Pemerintah pusat terutama dari kalangan pamong praja.
5. UU No. 18 tahun 1965. Kebijakan otonomi daerah menitikberatkan pada desentralisasi dengan memberikan otonomi yang seluas-luasnya bagi daerah, sedangkan dekonsentrasi diterapkan hanya sebagai pelengkap saja.
6. UU No. 5 tahun 1974. Setelah terjadinya G.30.S PKI pada dasarnya telah terjadi kevakuman dalam pengaturan penyelenggaraan Pemerintahan di daerah sampai dengan dikeluarkanya UU NO. 5 tahun 1974 yaitu desentralisasi, dekonsentrasi dan tugas perbantuan.
7. UU No. 22 tahun 1999. Pemerintah daerah sebagai titik sentral dalam penyelenggaraan Pemerintahan dan pembangunan dengan mengedepankan otonomi luas, nyata dan bertanggung jawab.
C. Prinsip-prinsip Otonomi Daerah
Berikut ini adalah prinsip-prinsip yang harus diterapkan dalam melaksanakan otonomi daerah, antara lain :
1. Prinsip otonomi seluas-luasnya artinya daerah berwenang mengatur semua urusan pemerintahan di luar urusan pemerintahan yang ditetapkan Undang-undang (misalnya selain bidang-bidang politik luar negeri, pertahanan, keamanan, yustisi, moneter dan fiskal nasional, serta agama).
2. Prinsip otonomi nyata adalah bahwa untuk menangani urusan pemerintahan, berdasarkan tugas, wewenang dan kewajiban yang senyatanya telah ada serta berpotensi untuk hidup dan berkembang sesuai potensi serta kekhasan daerah.
3. Prinsip otonomi bertanggung jawab adalah otonomi yang penyelenggaraannya benar-benar sejalan dengan tujuan dan maksud pemberian otonomi.
D. Pelaksanaan Otonomi Daerah di Indonesia
Otonomi daerah sesungguhnya bukanlah hal yang baru di Indonesia. Hingga saat ini Indonesia sudah beberapa kali merubah peraturan perundang-undangan tentang pemerintahan daerah yang menandakan bagaimana otonomi daerah di Indonesia berjalan secara dinamis.
Apabila diamati, pelaksanaan otonomi daerah di Indonesia masih banyak kekurangan dalam pelaksanaan otonomi daerah seperti kurangnya koordinasi pusat dan daerah serta masalah-masalah lain yang kemudian berdampak terhadap masyarakat itu sendiri. Masalah-masalah tersebut antara lain seperti semakin maraknya penyebaran korupsi diberbagai daerah, money politics, munculnya fenomena pragmatism politik di masyarakat daerah, legitimasi politik dan stabilitas politik belum sepenuhnya tercapai, adanya konflik horizontal dan konflik vertical, dan kesejahteraan masyarakat ditingkat local belum sepenuhnya diwujudkan.
Keinginan untuk mewujudkan suatu pemerintahan yang baik melalui otonomi daerah memang bukanlah hal yang mudah, masih banyak hal yang perlu diperhatikan untuk dapat menciptakan otonomi daerah yang maksimal demi menciptakan pemerintahan khususnya pemerintahan daerah yang lebih baik. Oleh karena itu diperlukan koordinasi yang baik antara pemerintah pusat dengan pemerintah daerah serta kejujuran dan pertanggung jawaban dari aparat pemerintah semua dalam menjalankan tugasnya.

BAB III
PENUTUP

A. Kesimpulan
Otonomi daerah adalah hak, wewenang dan kewajiban daerah otonom untuk mengatur dan mengurus sendiri urusan pemerintahan dan kepentingan masyarakat setempat sesuai dengan peraturan perundang-undangan.
Dalam pelaksanaannya, otonomi daerah harus berdasarkan prinsip-prinsipnya dan terjadi koordinasi yang benar antara pemerintah pusat dan pemerintah daerah. Selain itu juga dibutuhkan kejujuran dan pertanggung jawaban dari aparat pemerintah dalam menjalankan tugasnya sehingga masalah-masalah yang timbul dalam pelaksanaan otonomi daerah dapat berkurang dan diatasi.
B. Saran
Agar otonomi daerah di Indonesia berjalan baik dan benar, perlu adanya kerjasama antara pemerintah pusat dan pemerintah daerah, serta rakyat sebagai anggota dari daerah otonom.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

http://www.lintasjari.com/2013/07/prinsip-prinsip-otonomi-daerah.html
http://www.smansax1-edu.com/2015/01/asas-prinsip-dan-dasar-hukum-otonomi.html
http://www.kompasiana.com/ekanovias/permasalahan-dalam-otonomi-daerah-di-indonesia_5529a5406ea834202b552d8a
Otonomi Daerah: Landasan Hukum, Asas, dan Pemda
http://arnienuranisa.blogspot.co.id/2011/05/pelaksanaan-otonomi-daerah-di-indonesia.html

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