Meningkatkan Pemahaman dengan Teknik 5R

Pemahaman sangatlah penting dalam proses pembelajaran. Untuk dapat mengerti dan menerapkan suatu teori atau pembelajaran, seseorang harus benar-benar paham terhadap teori atau pembelajaran tersebut. Selain itu, pemahaman juga dapat membantu kita dalam mengingat suatu materi dalam jangka panjang.

Setiap orang pastinya memiliki kemampuan untuk memahami sesuatu yang berberda-beda. Kecepatan seseorang untuk memahami suatu hal dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor tertentu. Menurut Prof. Dr. Sudaryanto faktor-faktor tersebut antara lain  usia, pengalaman, intelegensia,  pendidikan, lingkungan, sosial budaya dan ekonomi.

Bagi orang-orang yang mempunyai kemampuan pemahaman rendah akan mengalami kesulitan untuk mengikuti pembelajaran. Semakin lama ia akan makin tertinggal dan akhirnya menyebabkan prestasinya menjadi jelek. Meningkatkan pemahaman sangat diperlukan untuk itu. Tidak hanya bagi mereka yang memiliki kemampuan pemahaman rendah, akan tetapi juga bagi mereka yang berkemampuan sedang atau tinggi. Mereka yang berkemampuan sedang atau tinggi akan semakin mengerti dan paham sehingga prestasi mereka juga akan semakin baik.

Universitas Cornell menerapkan suatu sistem yang dapat membantu meningkatkan pemahaman seseorang akan suatu hal, khususnya dalam proses belajar mengajar / pembelajaran. Sistem tersebut dikenal dengan nama sistem 5R, yaitu record (rekam), reduce (ringkas), recite (daras), reflect (renung), dan review (periksa). (Dwi Hanti Rahayu & Tadkiroatun Musfiroh : 2004)

Teknik 5 R ini mengajarkan bagaimana kita bisa membuat catatan yang baik dan efisien. Teknik ini cukup mudah untuk diterapkan bagi siswa maupun mahasiswa, bahkan kalangan umum sekalipun. Teknik 5R dapat diterapkan dalam banyak hal, seperti proses pembelajaran,  kuliah, seminar, wawancara, dan lain-lain.

Bahan utama untuk menerapkan teknik 5R ini yaitu bahan simakan atau materi dan alat tulis, ditambah dengan konsentrasi. Bahan simakan atau materi berupa hal yang akan disimak dan dicatat. Apabila dalam proses pembelajaran misalnya pada saat kuliah, berarti bahan simakannya adalah materi yang akan disampaikan oleh dosen. Alat tulis yang diperlukan berupa kertas yang dibagi menjadi dua bagian (besar dan kecil) dan pulpen. Hal lain yang diperlukan adalah konsentrasi. Kita harus memperhatikan dan mendengarkan dengan sungguh-sungguh apa yang disampaikan sehingga kita dapat mencatat poin-poin penting materi yang disampaikan.

Langkah-langkah dalam melakukan teknik 5R yaitu :

  1. Record (rekam)

Record atau merekam yakni mendengarkan bahan simakan dan mencatatnya pada kolom besar (kanan) lembar catatan. Hal-hal yang perlu dicatat yaitu fakta-fakta dan gagasan yang penting. Tulis dengan jelas agar paling tidak dapat dipahami oleh diri sendiri. Apa yang ditulis tidak harus dapat dimengerti orang lain.

  1. Reduce (ringkas)

Setelah menyimak  dan menuliskan fakta dan gagasan pada kolom besar (kanan) lembar catatan. Langkah selanjutnya adalah meringkas. Meringkas ini akan memperjelas arti-arti dan hubungan-hubungan, memperkuat kesinambungan, dan memudahkan dalam mengingat. Ringkasan ini berupa kata kunci berbentuk frasa-frasa penting dari fakta atau gagasan yang telah ditulis sebelumnya. Ringkasan ditulis dibagian kolom kecil (kiri) lembar catatan.

  1. Recite (daras)

Dalam tahap ini hal yang harus dilakukan adalah mendaras atau mengatakan dengan kata-kata sendiri apa yang telah diperoleh (fakta dan gagasan) dalam proses menyimak. Tuliskan fakta dan gagasan tersebut dan ditambah dengan penilaian sendiri ataupun pengetahuan dari sumber lain di kertas lain atau di dalam buku catatan. Hal ini dapat membantu agar pengetahuan dan ingatan tentang bahan-bahan yang telah disimak tetap kokoh.

  1. Reflect (renung)

Dengan mempergunakan catatan yang telah dibuat, kita dapat mengadakan renungan-renungan sendiri, mengotak-atik sendiri, sehingga hubungan antara topik yang dicatat menjadi lebih jelas dan erat. Renungan, pendapat, dan pengalaman yang berhubungan dengan salah satu topik simakan dapat ditulis pada kertas atau kartu yang lain untuk disimpan. Untuk mempermudah dalam memilih topik yang akan ditulis, sebelumnya dapat dibuat mind-mapping berdasarkan data dari R3 (recite / daras).

  1. Review (periksa)

Review adalah memeriksa atau meninjau kembali catatan yang telah dibuat. Hal ini sangat penting untuk dilakukan. Dengan membaca kembali catatan yang telah dibuat kita dapat meningkatkan pemahaman dan memperpanjang daya ingat terhadap materi / bahan yang disimak.

(Dwi Hanti Rahayu & Tadkiroatun Musfiroh : 2004)

Dalam penerapannya saat kuliah, tahap yang dilakukan pada saat proses pembelajaran biasanya hanya tahap R1 (record / rekam) dan R2 (reduce / ringkas) saja. Tahap selanjutnya (recite, reflect, dan review) dilakukan di luar proses pembelajaran di kelas sebagai tugas mandiri dari dosen.

Sistem yang dimiliki teknik 5R ini membuat kita secara tidak langsung membaca berulang-ulang materi yang disimak. Hal itu dapat membantu kita memahami ataupun meningkatkan pemahaman kita terhadap materi tersebut. Selain itu, dengan kata kunci yang telah dibuat pada R2 (reduce / ringkas) dapat membuat kita dengan mudah mengingat materi tersebut.

Penelitian tentang penerapan penggunaan teknik 5R pernah dilakukan oleh Nurhidayah, M.Hum salah satu dosen di Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta. Penelitian beliau berjudul “Peningkatan Keterampilan Menyimak Apresiatif dan Kreatif Tayangan Film melalui Teknik Pencatatan 5R (Record, Reduce, Recite, Reflect, And Review)”. Dari penelitian tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa penerapan teknik pencatatan 5R terbukti dapat meningkatkan keterampilan menyimak apresiatif dan kreatif terhadap film.

Adapun indikator keberhasilan hasil penelitian ini adalah meningkatnya keterampilan pemahaman, penikmatan, dan penghargaan terhadap film yang tercermin pada peningkatan kualitas hasil laporan dan pencapaian skor evaluasi dan apresiasi terhadap fim yang disimak. (LITERA, Volume 14, Nomor 2, Oktober 2015)

Dari penelitian tersebut, dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa keberhasilan peningkatan keterampilan menyimak apresiatif dan kreatif tayangan film karena meningkatnya pemahaman mahasiswa dengan menggunakan teknik 5R.

Jadi, teknik 5R (record, reduce, recite, reflect, review) merupakan salah satu metode pencatatan yang dapat membantu meningkatkan pemahaman seseorang terhadap suatu hal. Teknik ini akan sangat berguna apabila diterapkan pada proses pembelajaran, karena secara tidak langsung akan meningkatkan prestasi siswa. Selain itu, sebaiknya teknik ini mulai diterapkan sejak dini karena pemahaman akan pengetahuan yang dimiliki anak akan semakin banyak dan luas.

 

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

http://kesehatanlingkunganmasyarakat.blogspot.co.id

http://journal.uny.ac.id

Musfiroh, Tadkiroatun & Dwi Hanti Rahayu. 2004. Menyimak Komprehensif dan Kritis. Yogyakarta : UNY

Nurhidayah. 2015. Peningkatan Keterampilan Menyimak Apresiatif dan Kreatif Tayangan Film melalui Teknik Pencatatan 5R (Record, Reduce, Recite, Reflect, And Review). LITERA, Vol. 14, No. 2. http://journal.uny.ac.id. (Diakses pada tanggal 29 Desember 2015)

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